In veterinary medicine, as in human medicine, there are many areas of concentration such as ophthalmology, dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, and neurology. A veterinarian, who is board-certified in a category of veterinary medicine recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association, is called a SPECIALIST. To become board-certified in one these specialty areas, a veterinarian must complete three to four years of advanced training after the four years of veterinary school, publish new findings and successfully complete a series of written and practical examinations. Only board-certified specialists are given the title of “diplomate” in the field of their specialty.