A veterinary ophthalmologist is a veterinarian that is board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ACVO). To become board-certified and receive Diplomate status in the ACVO, the candidate must pass a series of rigorous written and practical examinations. To be eligible to take the examination, the candidate first completes the four years of veterinary school required to become a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM), followed by three or four additional years of training that are required to gain the medical and surgical expertise necessary to be an ophthalmology specialist. The additional training usually includes a one-year internship in small animal medicine and surgery followed by a three-year residency in ophthalmology supervised by board-certified ophthalmologists. In addition, several publications must be prepared, reviewed, and accepted by the ACVO credential committee. Presently there are about ? board certified Diplomates in the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists in the United States. To learn more about the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists you can visit the ACVO web site at http://www.acvo.org. There is also the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists which serves a similar function in Europe . Their web site can be viewed at http://ecvo.co.