Eyelid surgery is necessary to repair lacerations and remove masses along the eyelid in order to maintain normal function of the eyelids and prevent corneal damage. Abnormal conformation of the eyelids (for example: entropion – “rolling in” and ectropion – “rolling out”) are common in certain dog breeds, but can also occur in other species. Surgery to correct the conformation of the eyelids helps to prevent corneal damage by keeping hair from contacting the cornea and helps to maintain healthy ocular surface tissues.
Corneal perforation and deep defects of the cornea are emergencies! Other corneal diseases may also require surgical therapy (Feline corneal sequestrum, ulceration). Various surgical techniques are used to treat these conditions depending on localization, extent and cause of the corneal lesion.
Glaucoma is a very painful condition, which leads to blindness due to an increased intraocular pressure if not treated early. Acute glaucoma is an emergency! Some dog breeds are predisposed to develop this disease due to an abnormality in their drainage angles. The conformation of the drainage angle of your dog can be easily evaluated by performing a gonioscopic examination. If your dog has glaucoma, a combined surgery may be recommended to maintain vision. A glaucoma shunt (silicone tube) is placed into the anterior chamber and underneath the adjacent conjunctiva to help fluid drain from the eye. The second procedure is laser therapy (cyclophotocoagulation) to destroy the tissue which produces aqueous humor.
Just like in humans, other species can get cataracts in their lenses. This leads to vision impairment or blindness. Unfortunately, this disease is very common in dogs. Cataracts occur primarily due to hereditary factors or secondary to diabetes mellitus, uveitis, trauma or other factors. The surgery is exactly the same technique as is used in humans with cataracts. Phacoemulsification is used to remove the opaque lens material. Special canine artificial intraocular lenses are implanted to regain optimal vision which should be as good or at least almost as good as their vision was before they developed cataracts.
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If your dog has a higher risk of retinal detachment after cataract surgery a retinopexy can be performed prior to cataract surgery. A laser technique is used for preventive and therapeutic retinopexy.